Technology beginning with R

Smart Grid Technology
Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.
Ramp Rate(Generator)

The rate, expressed in megawatts per minute, that a generator changes its output.

Ramp Rate(Schedule)

The rate, expressed in megawatts per minute, at which the interchange schedule is attained during the ramp period.

Rated Electrical Operating Conditions

The specified or reasonably anticipated conditions under which the electrical system or an individual electrical circuit is intend/designed to operate.

Rating

The operational limits of a transmission system element under a set of specified conditions.

Reactive Power

The portion of electricity that establishes and sustains the electric and magnetic fields of alternating-current equipment. Reactive power must be supplied to most types of magnetic equipment, such as motors and transformers. It also must supply the reactive losses on transmission facilities. Reactive power is provided by generators, synchronous condensers, or electrostatic equipment, and directly influences electric system voltage. It is usually expressed in kilovars (kvar) or megavars (Mvar).

Real Power

The portion of electricity that supplies energy to the load.

Real-Time Load Measurement And Management

This function provides real-time measurement of customer consumption and management of load through Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) systems (smart meters, two-way communications) and embedded appliance controllers that help customers make informed energy use decisions via real-time price signals, time-of-use (TOU) rates, and service options.

Real-Time Load Transfer

Real-time load transfer is achieved through real-time feeder reconfiguration and optimization to relieve load on equipment, improve asset utilization, improve distribution system efficiency, and enhance system performance.

Real-time Pricing

Real-time pricing (RTP) is generally an hourly rate which is applied to usage on an hourly basis.

Reallocation

The total or partial curtailment of Transactions during TLR Level 3a or 5a to allow Transactions using higher priority to be implemented.

Receiving Balancing Authority

The Balancing Authority importing the Interchange.

Reduced Ancillary Service Cost

Ancillary services are necessary to ensure the reliable and efficient operation of the grid. The level of ancillary services required at any point in time is determined by the grid operator and/or energy market rules. Ancillary services, including spinning reserve and frequency regulation, could be reduced if generators could more closely follow load; peak load on the system was reduced; power factor, voltage, and VAR control were improved; or information available to grid operators were improved.

Reduced Co2 Emissions

Functions that provide this benefit can lead to avoided vehicle miles, decrease the amount of central generation needed to their serve load (through reduced electricity consumption, reduced electricity losses, more optimal generation dispatch), and or reduce peak generation. These impacts translate into a reduction in CO2 emissions produced by fossil-based electricity generators and vehicles.

Reduced Congestion Cost

Congestion occurs when scheduled market transactions (generation and load) result in power flow over a transmission element that exceeds the available capacity. Since grid operators must ensure that physical overloads do not occur, they will dispatch generation so as to prevent them. The functions that provide this benefit provide lower cost energy, decrease loading on system elements, shift load to off-peak, or allow the grid operator to manage the flow of electricity around constrained interfaces.

Reduced Electricity Cost

Functions that provide this benefit could help alter customer usage patterns (demand response with price signals or direct load control), or help reduce the cost of electricity during peak times through either production (DG) or storage.

Reduced Electricity Losses

Functions that provide this benefit could help manage peak feeder loads, reduced electricity throughput, locate electricity production closer to the load and ensure that voltages remain within service tolerances, while minimizing the amount of reactive power provided. These actions can reduce electricity losses by making the system more efficient for a given load served or by actually reducing the overall load on the system.

Reduced Electricity Theft

Smart meters can typically detect tampering. Moreover, a meter data management system can analyze customer usage to identify patterns that could indicate diversion. These new capabilities can lead to a reduction in electricity theft through earlier identification and prevention of theft.

Reduced Equipment Failures

Reducing mechanical stresses on equipment increases service life and reduces the probability of premature failure. This can be accomplished though enhanced monitoring and detection, reduction of fault currents, enhanced fault protection, or loading limits based on real-time equipment or environmental factors.

Reduced Major Outages

A major outage is defined using the beta method, per IEEE Std 1366-2003 (IEEE Power Engineering Society 2004). The monetary benefit of reducing major outages is based on the VOS of each customer class. The VOS parameter represents the total cost of a power outage per MWh. This cost includes the value of unserved energy, lost productivity, collateral damage, the value of penalties and performance-based rates.

Reduced Meter Reading Cost

Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) equipment eliminates the need to send someone to each location to read the meter manually, leading to reduced meter operations costs. AMI technology can also reduce costs associated with other meter operations such as connection/disconnects, outage investigations, and maintenance.

Reduced Momentary Outages

By locating faults more accurately or adding electricity storage, momentary outages could be reduced or eliminated. Moreover, fewer customers on the same or adjacent distribution feeders would experience the momentary interruptions associated with reclosing. Momentary outages last <5 min in duration. The benefit to consumers is based on the value of service.

Reduced Oil Usage (Not Monetized)

The functions that provide this benefit eliminate the need to send a line worker or crew to the switch or capacitor locations to operate them, eliminate the need for truck rolls to perform diagnosis of equipment condition, and reduce truck rolls for meter reading and measurement purposes. This reduces the fuel consumed by a service or line truck. The use of plug-in electric vehicles can also lead to this benefit.

Reduced Restoration Cost

The functions that provide this benefit lead to fewer outages and/or help restore power quicker or with less manual labor hours, which results in lower restoration costs. These costs can include line crew labor/material/equipment, support services such as logistics, call centers, media relations, and other professional staff time and material associated with service restoration.

Reduced Sags And Swells

Locating high impedance faults more quickly and precisely and adding electricity storage will reduce the frequency and severity of the voltage fluctuations that they can cause. Installing advanced reclosers that allow a limited amount of current to flow through them upon reclosing can also reduce voltage fluctuations. Moreover, fewer customers on the same or adjacent distribution feeders would experience the voltage fluctuation caused by the fault. The benefit to consumers is based on the value of service.

Reduced Sox, Nox, And Pm-2.5 Emissions

Functions that provide this benefit can lead to avoided vehicle miles, decrease the amount of central generation needed to their serve load (through reduced electricity consumption, reduced electricity losses, more optimal generation dispatch), and or reduce peak generation. These impacts translate into a reduction in pollutant emissions produced by fossil-based electricity generators and vehicles.

Reduced Sustained Outages

A sustained outage is one lasting >5 minutes, excluding major outages and wide-scale outages. The monetary benefit of reducing sustained outages is based on the value of service (VOS) of each customer class. The VOS parameter represents the total cost of a power outage per MWh. This cost includes the value of unserved energy, lost productivity, collateral damage, administrative costs, the value of penalties and performance-based rates.

Reduced T&D Equipment Maintenance Cost

The cost of sending technicians into the field to check equipment condition is high. Moreover, to ensure that they maintain equipment sufficiently, and identify failure precursors, some utilities may conduct equipment testing and maintenance more often than is necessary. Online diagnosis and reporting of equipment condition would reduce or eliminate the need to send people out to check equipment resulting in a cost savings.

Reduced T&D Operations Cost

Automated or remote controlled operation of capacitor banks and feeder and line switches eliminates the need to send a line worker or crew to the switch location in order to operate it. This reduces the cost associated with the field service worker(s) and service vehicle.

Reduced Wide-Scale Blackouts

The functions that lead to this benefit will give grid operators a better picture of the bulk power system and allow them to better coordinate resources and operations between regions. This will reduce the probability of wide-scale regional blackouts.

Regional Reliability Organization

An entity that ensures that a defined area of the Bulk Electric System is reliable, adequate and secure.

Regional Reliability Plan

The plan that specifies the Reliability Coordinators and Balancing Authorities within the Regional Reliability Organization, and explains how reliability coordination will be accomplished.

Regulating Reserve

An amount of reserve responsive to Automatic Generation Control, which is sufficient to provide normal regulating margin.

Regulation Service

The process whereby one Balancing Authority contracts to provide corrective response to all or a portion of the ACE of another Balancing Authority. The Balancing Authority providing the response assumes the obligation of meeting all applicable control criteria as specified by NERC for itself and the Balancing Authority for which it is providing the Regulation Service.

Reliability Coordinator

The entity that is the highest level of authority who is responsible for the reliable operation of the Bulk Electric System, has the Wide Area view of the Bulk Electric System, and has the operating tools, processes and procedures, including the authority to prevent or mitigate emergency operating situations in both nextday analysis and real-time operations.

Reliability Coordinator Area

The collection of generation, transmission, and loads within the boundaries of the Reliability Coordinator. Its boundary coincides with one or more Balancing Authority Areas.

Reliability Coordinator Information System

The system that Reliability Coordinators use to post messages and share operating information in real time.

Remote Fault Indicators

These devices detect faulted conditions on distribution systems and communicate that condition to utility operators.

Remote Service Switch

A power switch in a smart meter that allows a utility to turn service to a customer's premises on or off. The switch is remotely operated from the utility using the AMI communications infrastructure. This feature is limited to residential meters providing 200 amp service or less, and allows a utility to switch service without using a service truck. This can be particularly useful for reducing service time and costs for establishing or terminating services for move-ins/move-outs, or for safety reasons.

Renewable Energy Forecasting Tool

Applications that utilize real-time performance data from distributed resources, including renewables.

Reportable Disturbance

Any event that causes an ACE change greater than or equal to 80% of a Balancing Authority's or reserve sharing group's most severe contingency. The definition of a reportable disturbance is specified by each Regional Reliability Organization. This definition may not be retroactively adjusted in response to observed performance.

Request For Interchange

A collection of data as defined in the NAESB RFI Datasheet, to be submitted to the Interchange Authority for the purpose of implementing bilateral Interchange between a Source and Sink Balancing Authority.

Reserve Sharing Group

A group whose members consist of two or more Balancing Authorities that collectively maintain, allocate, and supply operating reserves required for each Balancing Authority's use in recovering from contingencies within the group. If the transaction is ramped in quicker than the ten minutes sometimes required by an Adjacent Balancing Authority (e.g., between zero and ten minutes) then, for the purposes of Disturbance Control Performance, the Areas become a Reserve Sharing Group.

Resource Planner

The entity that develops a long-term (generally one year and beyond) plan for the resource adequacy of specific loads (customer demand and energy requirements) within a Planning Authority Area.

Response Rate

The Ramp Rate that a generating unit can achieve under normal operating conditions expressed in megawatts per minute (MW/Min).

Right-Of-Way (Row)

A corridor of land on which electric lines may be located. The Transmission Owner may own the land in fee, own an easement, or have certain franchise, prescription, or license rights to construct and maintain lines.