Technology beginning with P

Smart Grid Technology
Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.
Peak Demand

The highest hourly integrated Net Energy For Load within a Balancing Authority Area occurring within a given period (e.g., day, month, season, or year)., The highest instantaneous demand within the Balancing Authority Area.

Performance-Reset Period

The time period that the entity being assessed must operate without any violations to reset the level of non compliance to zero.

Phase Angle Regulating Transformer

Transformers that enable phase angle control between the primary (source) and the secondary (load) side to create a phase shift between the primary side voltage and the secondary side voltage. The purpose of this phase shift is to control the real power flow through interconnected power systems.

Phasor Data Concentrator (PDC)

Receives and time-synchronizes phasor data from multiple phasor measurement units (PMUs) to produce a real-time, time-aligned output data stream. A PDC can exchange phasor data with PDCs at other locations. Through use of multiple PDCs, multiple layers of concentration can be implemented within an individual synchrophasor data system.

Phasor Measurement Technology

The phasor measurement units, phasor data concentrators, communications technology, and advanced software applications that enables system operators to collect and analyze synchrophasor data from the bulk transmission system.

Phasor Measurement Unit (PMU)

Phasor Measurement Units (PMUs) calculate voltage and current phasors based on digital sampling of alternating current (AC) waveforms and a precise time signal provided by a GPS clock. A PMU provides output data in a standard protocol at rates of 30 or more samples/second, communicating to remote locations. The time-stamped measurements allow collected synchrophasor data to be accurately compared to time synchronized conditions at distant locations. Devices with PMU capability are also considered PMUs.

Physical Security Perimeter

The physical, completely enclosed ('six-wall') border surrounding computer rooms, telecommunications rooms, operations centers, and other locations in which Critical Cyber Assets are housed and for which access is controlled.

Planning Authority

The responsible entity that coordinates and integrates transmission facility and service plans, resource plans, and protection systems.

Plug-In Electric Vehicle Charging Station

A device or station that provides power to charge the batteries of an electric vehicle. These chargers are classified according to output voltage and the rate at which they can charge a battery. Level 1 is the slowest, and can be done through most wall outlets at 120 volts and 15 amps AC. Level 2 is faster, and is done at less than or equal to 240 volts and 60 amps AC, with a power output of less than or equal to 14.4 kW. Level 3 is fastest, and can be done with power output of greater than 14.4 kW.

Point Of Delivery

A location that the Transmission Service Provider specifies on its transmission system where an Interchange Transaction leaves or a Load-Serving Entity receives its energy.

Point Of Receipt

A location that the Transmission Service Provider specifies on its transmission system where an Interchange Transaction enters or a Generator delivers its output.

Point To Point Transmission Service

The reservation and transmission of capacity and energy on either a firm or non-firm basis from the Point(s) of Receipt to the Point(s) of Delivery.

Post-Mortem Analysis Systems

Advanced transmission applications utilize synchrophasor measurement data to analyze major power system disturbances, including blackouts. The goals of this analysis are to identify the nature and location of the initiating event, the progression of the disturbance, and the impacts that grid operations had on controlling the progression. These applications could also be used to develop reliability procedures and corrective actions to prevent and mitigate future events.

Power Flow Control

Flow control requires techniques that are applied at transmission and distribution levels to influence the path that power (real & reactive) travels. This functionality is enabled by tools such as flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS), phase angle regulating transformers (PARs), series capacitors, and very low impedance superconductors.

Power System Restoration

An application that utilizes bus frequencies throughout the network to identify power system islands and system separation points.

Pro Forma Tariff

Usually refers to the standard OATT and/or associated transmission rights mandated by the U.S. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Order No. 888.

Programmable Communicating Thermostat

Thermostats with communications capabilities. The communication enables sending messages to thermostats to remotely modify temperature set points and load consumption.

Protection System

Protective relays, associated communication systems, voltage and current sensing devices, station batteries and DC control circuitry.


A telemetered reading or value that is updated in real time and used as a 'virtual' tie line flow in the AGC/ACE equation but for which no physical tie or energy metering actually exists. The integrated value is used as a metered MWh value for interchange accounting purposes.

Purchasing-Selling Entity

The entity that purchases or sells, and takes title to, energy, capacity, and Interconnected Operations Services. Purchasing-Selling Entities may be affiliated or unaffiliated merchants and may or may not own generating facilities.