Technology beginning with C

Smart Grid Technology
Click one of the letters above to go to the page of all terms beginning with that letter.
Capacity Benefit Margin

The amount of firm transmission transfer capability preserved by the transmission provider for Load-Serving Entities (LSEs), whose loads are located on that Transmission Service Provider's system, to enable access by the LSEs to generation from interconnected systems to meet generation reliability requirements. Preservation of CBM for an LSE allows that entity to reduce its installed generating capacity below that which may otherwise have been necessary without interconnections.

Capacity Emergency

A capacity emergency exists when a Balancing Authority Area's operating capacity, plus firm purchases from other systems, to the extent available or limited by transfer capability, is inadequate to meet its demand plus its regulating requirements.

Capacity Revenue

Revenue generated through the competitive capacity market for a capacity credit.

Cascading Outage

The uncontrolled successive loss of system elements triggered by an incident at any location. Cascading results in widespread electric service interruption that cannot be restrained from sequentially spreading beyond an area predetermined by studies.

Circuit Peak Load Management

An application utilizing sensors, information processors, communications, and control systems designed to limit the load on a distribution circuit. Such an application would take corrective action automatically, or provide notification or instructions to an operator to do so.

Clock Hour

The 60-minute period ending at :00. All surveys, measurements, and reports are based on Clock Hour periods unless specifically noted.

Compliance Monitor

The entity that monitors, reviews, and ensures compliance of responsible entities with reliability standards.

Confirmed Interchange

The state where the Interchange Authority has verified the Arranged Interchange.

Congestion Management Report

A report that the Interchange Distribution Calculator issues when a Reliability Coordinator initiates the Transmission Loading Relief procedure. This report identifies the transactions and native and network load curtailments that must be initiated to achieve the loading relief requested by the initiating Reliability Coordinator.

Constrained Facility

A transmission facility (line, transformer, breaker, etc.) that is approaching, is at, or is beyond its System Operating Limit or Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit.


The unexpected failure or outage of a system component, such as a generator, transmission line, circuit breaker, switch or other electrical element. Contingency Reserve The provision of capacity deployed by the Balancing Authority to meet the Disturbance Control Standard (DCS) and other NERC and Regional Reliability Organization contingency requirements.

Contingency Reserve

The provision of capacity deployed by the Balancing Authority to meet the Disturbance Control Standard (DCS) and other NERC and Regional Reliability Organization contingency requirements.

Contract Path

An agreed upon electrical path for the continuous flow of electrical power between the parties of an Interchange Transaction.

Control Performance Standard

The reliability standard that sets the limits of a Balancing Authority's Area Control Error over a specified time period.

Controllable and Regulating Inverter

Inverters are used to convert Direct Current (DC), the form of electricity produced by solar panels and batteries, to Alternating Current (AC), the form of electricity that comes from most wall plugs. A controllable/regulating inverter can adjust its output to help control voltage and power factor, enabling it to provide grid support. This is important because today, inverter standards are designed to prevent inverters from trying to regulate power beyond the point where they are connected to the grid.

Controllable/Regulating Inverter

AC to DC converters that properly regulate voltage and can be controlled remotely. These devices can significantly increase the integration of renewable or intermittent sources of electricity.

Corrective Action Plan

A list of actions and an associated timetable for implementation to remedy a specific problem.

Cranking Path

A portion of the electric system that can be isolated and then energized to deliver electric power from a generation source to enable the startup of one or more other generating units.

Critical Assets

Facilities, systems, and equipment which, if destroyed, degraded, or otherwise rendered unavailable, would affect the reliability or operability of the Bulk Electric System.

Critical Cyber Assets

Cyber Assets essential to the reliable operation of Critical Assets.

Critical Peak Pricing

When utilities observe or anticipate high wholesale market prices or power system emergency conditions, they may call critical events during a specified time period (e.g., 3 pm—6 pm on a hot summer weekday), the price for electricity during these time periods is raised. Two types of rate design exist: one where the time and duration of the price increase are predetermined when events are called and another where the time and duration of the price increase may vary based on the demand of the electric grid.

Critical Peak Rebates

When utilities observe or anticipate high wholesale market prices or power system emergency conditions, they may call critical events during pre-specified time periods (e.g., 3 p.m.—6 p.m. summer weekday afternoons), the price for electricity during these time periods remains the same but the customer is refunded at a single, predetermined value for any reduction in consumption relative to what the utility deemed the customer was expected to consume.


A reduction in the scheduled capacity or energy delivery of an Interchange Transaction.

Curtailment Threshold

The minimum Transfer Distribution Factor which, if exceeded, will subject an Interchange Transaction to curtailment to relieve a transmission facility constraint.

Customer Electricity Use Optimization

Customer electricity use optimization is possible if customers are provided with information to make educated decisions about their electricity use. Customers could be able to optimize toward multiple goals such as cost, reliability, convenience, and environmental impact.

Customer Ems/Display/Portal

Devices or portals through which energy and related information can be communicated to and from utilities or third-party energy service providers. These devices can also help customers control electricity usage automatically by leveraging signals from the utility or owner-set parameters.

Customer Energy Management Device and System

A device that can control other energy devices such as thermostats, lighting, direct load control devices, or distributed energy resource within the customer premise. These devices may also receive information or control signals from utilities or third party energy service providers. These devices can help customers manage electricity usage automatically by utilizing information from service providers, or preferences set by the customer.

Customer System Communications Network

The communications network or networks between the customers' premise and the utility, designed to provide two-way communications between customer systems and utility information systems. These networks can utilize wired or wireless connections, and can be utility-owned or provided as services by a third party.

Customer Web Portal

A web site designed to allow customers to view information related to their electricity usage, including consumption data, pricing information, billing information, and other messages and resources from the utility or third party energy services provider. The web portal may also be used to allow customers to provide information back to providers. Customer web portals may be accessed through web browsers or applications on personal computers or mobile devices such as smart phones.

Cyber Assets

Programmable electronic devices and communication networks including hardware, software, and data.

Cyber Security Incident

Any malicious act or suspicious event that: Compromises, or was an attempt to compromise, the Electronic Security Perimeter or Physical Security Perimeter of a Critical Cyber Asset, or, Disrupts, or was an attempt to disrupt, the operation of a Critical Cyber Asset.